, The seven major plates are the Pacific, North American, Eurasian, African, Antarctic, Indo-Australian, and South American. Its mass is 4.01 × 10 24 kg. Energy from the Sun heats this layer, and the surface below, causing expansion of the air.  During the Ediacaran period, for example, (approximately 620 Ma) there were 400±7 days in a year, with each day lasting 21.9±0.4 hours. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, and the earth was also written the Earth, particularly when referenced along with other heavenly bodies.  The Köppen system rates regions based on observed temperature and precipitation. 5. This hypothesis explains (among other things) the Moon's relative lack of iron and volatile elements and the fact that its composition is nearly identical to that of Earth's crust.  Large deposits of fossil fuels are obtained from Earth's crust, consisting of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. , Chemical reactions led to the first self-replicating molecules about four billion years ago. ", "Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations: Scale of the Himalayas", "Chemical composition of Earth, Venus, and Mercury", "Structural geology of the Earth's interior", "Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's Inner Core", "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core", "The Earth's Centre is 1000 Degrees Hotter than Previously Thought", "Cooling of the Earth in the Archaean: Consequences of pressure-release melting in a hotter mantle", "The Structure of the Terrestrial Planets", "Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Cocos-Nazca Spreading Center", "Geologically current motion of 56 plates relative to the no‐net‐rotation reference frame", "Hypsographic Curve of Earth's Surface from ETOPO1", "Terrestrial Impact Cratering and Its Environmental Effects", "Land transformation by humans: A review", "Current Systems in the Earth's Magnetosphere", "Cluster reveals the reformation of the Earth's bow shock", "Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere", "Rapid Service/Prediction of Earth Orientation", "The Earth as an Object of Astrophysical Interest in the Search for Extrasolar Planets", "Earth Rotation and Equatorial Coordinates", "Milankovitch (Orbital) Cycles and Their Role in Earth's Climate", "Croll Revisited: Why is the Northern Hemisphere Warmer than the Southern Hemisphere? Earth provides liquid water—an environment where complex organic molecules can assemble and interact, and sufficient energy to sustain metabolism. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet, although Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto. A region's climate is not only determined by latitude, but also by its proximity to moderating oceans and height among other factors. Earth radius is the distance from the center of Earth to a point on its surface. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer, When, where and how to see the planets in the 2021 night sky, The 10 must-see night sky events to see in 2021, Michael Burnham goes full John McClane in 'Star Trek: Discovery's' penultimate episode of season 3, 'Firefly's' Alan Tudyk plays a marooned E.T. The moon orbits the earth, and completes one rotation after 27 and a third days.  House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Density increases with depth, as described in the table on the right. Over millions of years, these tiny modifications—and the lengthening of Earth's day by about 23 µs/yr—add up to significant changes. States claim the planet's entire land surface, except for parts of Antarctica and a few other unclaimed areas. As an example, the distance between the planet Mercury and Earth can range from 77 million km at the closest point, to as far as 222 million km at the farthest. At the equator, Earth's circumference is 24,901.55 miles (40,075.16 km). , The shape of Earth is nearly spherical. Artstation earth vadim sadovski what is the diameter of earth is described as an oblate spheroid what is the diameter of earth quora earth facts world mysteries What Is The Diameter Of Earth Universe TodayHow Is The Radius Of Earth Diffe At Poles And EquatorsWhat Is The Diameter Of Earth Universe TodayBrain Post Which Mountainâ¦ Read More » According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth being estimated as likely taking anywhere from 70–100 million years to form. It makes up 67% the mass of the Earth. Both of these motions are caused by the varying attraction of the Sun and the Moon on Earth's equatorial bulge.  At the center, the temperature may be up to 6,000 °C (10,830 °F), and the pressure could reach 360 GPa (52 million psi). Beneath the mantle, an extremely low viscosity liquid outer core lies above a solid inner core. I looked up the moon's typical angular diameter, it is 0.5 degree.  Because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay, scientists postulate that early in Earth's history, before isotopes with short half-lives were depleted, Earth's heat production was much higher. Fifty years ago, we finally saw it", "Apollo 8's Earthrise: The Shot Seen Round the World – Half a century ago today, a photograph from the moon helped humans rediscover Earth", "We Are All Riders on the Same Planet – Seen from space 50 years ago, Earth appeared as a gift to preserve and cherish. Since then, the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/a (3.0 in/year) and the Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/a (2.0–2.7 in/year).  The earliest direct evidence of life on Earth is contained in 3.45 billion-year-old Australian rocks showing fossils of microorganisms. Atmospheric circulation, topographic features, and temperature differences determine the average precipitation that falls in each region. The gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. The land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil and fresh water, and the oceanic ecosystem depends on dissolved nutrients washed down from the land.  Other atmospheric functions important to life include transporting water vapor, providing useful gases, causing small meteors to burn up before they strike the surface, and moderating temperature. In the history of life on Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinctions.  The tiny near-Earth asteroid 2006 RH120 makes close approaches to the Earth–Moon system roughly every twenty years.  These metals and other elements are extracted by mining, a process which often brings environmental and health damage. Local topography deviates from this idealized spheroid, although on a global scale these deviations are small compared to Earth's radius: the maximum deviation of only 0.17% is at the Mariana Trench (10,925 metres or 35,843 feet below local sea level), whereas Mount Everest (8,848 metres or 29,029 feet above local sea level) represents a deviation of 0.14%. , Erosion and tectonics, volcanic eruptions, flooding, weathering, glaciation, the growth of coral reefs, and meteorite impacts are among the processes that constantly reshape Earth's surface over geological time. This polar motion has multiple, cyclical components, which collectively are termed quasiperiodic motion. Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! The first continental crust, which was more felsic in composition, formed by the partial melting of this mafic crust. The oceans cover an area of 361.8 million km2 (139.7 million sq mi) with a mean depth of 3,682 m (12,080 ft), resulting in an estimated volume of 1.332 billion km3 (320 million cu mi). Much of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice. Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → UniverseEach arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of". The Sun has a diameter of about 1,392,000 km (~865,000 miles). The Earth viewed from moon will appear larger, in proportion to how much larger the Earth's diameter is versus the moons diameter. Ions and electrons of the solar wind are deflected by the magnetosphere; solar wind pressure compresses the dayside of the magnetosphere, to about 10 Earth radii, and extends the nightside magnetosphere into a long tail. Due to Earth's axial tilt, the amount of sunlight reaching any given point on the surface varies over the course of the year. The oldest oceanic crust is located in the Western Pacific and is estimated to be 200 Ma old. The equatorial diameter is 42 km longer than the polar diameter.  Between approximately 4.1 and 3.8 Ga, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth.  The same effect on the Moon has led to its tidal locking: its rotation period is the same as the time it takes to orbit Earth.  High- and middle-latitude regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating about every 21,000, 41,000 and 100,000 years. New York, At higher latitudes, the sunlight reaches the surface at lower angles, and it must pass through thicker columns of the atmosphere. Mercury has a silicate mantle that is approximately 490 km thick. According to radiometric dating estimation and other evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago.  Atmospheric circulation also plays an important role: San Francisco and Washington DC are both coastal cities at about the same latitude. Aphelion is 103.4% of the distance to perihelion. The crust is separated from the mantle by the Mohorovičić discontinuity.  Some theorists think that without this stabilization against the torques applied by the Sun and planets to Earth's equatorial bulge, the rotational axis might be chaotically unstable, exhibiting large changes over millions of years, as is the case for Mars, though this is disputed.  By comparison, the oldest dated continental crust is 4,030 Ma, although zircons have been found preserved as clasts within Eoarchean sedimentary rocks that give ages up to 4,400 Ma, indicating that at least some continental crust existed at that time. , The Moon and Earth orbit a common barycenter every 27.32 days relative to the background stars. Favorite Answer. This accumulated snow and ice eventually forms into glaciers, bodies of ice that flow under the influence of their own gravity. , As the tectonic plates migrate, oceanic crust is subducted under the leading edges of the plates at convergent boundaries. There is a huge amount of different in the distances between the planets depending on their position on their orbit path. 12,720 km. It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing? It is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminum (1.4%), with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements. These plates are rigid segments that move relative to each other at one of three boundaries types: at convergent boundaries, two plates come together; at divergent boundaries, two plates are pulled apart; and at transform boundaries, two plates slide past one another laterally. Along these plate boundaries, earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation can occur. , The primary atmospheric circulation bands consist of the trade winds in the equatorial region below 30° latitude and the westerlies in the mid-latitudes between 30° and 60°. The Earth has a diameter of 7,926.3 miles at the equator, and its circumference, or the distance around the earth at the equator, is 24,901.55 miles.  There are also inoperative satellites, including Vanguard 1, the oldest satellite currently in orbit, and over 16,000 pieces of tracked space debris. ", "Causes of ice age intensification across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition", "Paleoclimatology – The Study of Ancient Climates", "The potential of New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) for testing the synchronicity of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Interval (60,000–11,700 years ago)", "Earth's Oxygen: A Mystery Easy to Take for Granted", "On the Origin and Rise of Oxygen Concentration in the Earth's Atmosphere", 10.1175/1520-0469(1965)022<0225:OTOARO>2.0.CO;2, "Astrobiologists Find Evidence of Early Life on Land", "Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. For its human aspects, see. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, and then the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. Because we dwell within the Milky Way Galaxy, it is impossible for us to take a picture of its spiral structure from the outside.  On land, biomes are separated primarily by differences in latitude, height above sea level and humidity. How many times greater is Eâ¦ Get the answers you need, now! Get breaking space news and the latest updates on rocket launches, skywatching events and more! The wind transports the cold or the heat of the ocean to the land. Space is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. The remaining 71% is covered with water, mostly by oceans but also by lakes, rivers and other fresh water, which together constitute the hydrosphere. Lv 4.  The radius of the inner core is about one fifth of that of Earth. , The main part of Earth's magnetic field is generated in the core, the site of a dynamo process that converts the kinetic energy of thermally and compositionally driven convection into electrical and magnetic field energy.  Human impact is felt in many areas due to pollution of the air and water, acid rain, loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, species extinction, soil degradation, soil depletion and erosion. It is about 20 light-years above the galactic plane in the Orion Arm. stranded in small-town America in first trailer for Syfy's 'Resident Alien', The best holiday season deals on Celestron telescopes and binoculars. The diameter of the earth at the equator is 7,926.41 miles or 12,756.32 kilometers.  Most of the water is then transported to lower elevations by river systems and usually returned to the oceans or deposited into lakes. In winter, the climate becomes cooler and the days shorter. The result is atmospheric circulation that drives the weather and climate through redistribution of thermal energy. Related: What's the Speed of Earth Around the Sun? , The point on the surface farthest from Earth's center of mass is the summit of the equatorial Chimborazo volcano in Ecuador (6,384.4 km or 3,967.1 mi). The most abundant silicate minerals on Earth's surface include quartz, feldspars, amphibole, mica, pyroxene and olivine. Photosynthesis provided a source of free oxygen, but the loss of reducing agents such as hydrogen is thought to have been a necessary precondition for the widespread accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere. The average diameter of the Earth is 12,742 km meaning Jupiterâs average diameter is 10.86 times that of the Earthâs (10.49 time at â¦ The orbital speed of Earth averages about 29.78 km/s (107,200 km/h; 66,600 mph), which is fast enough to travel a distance equal to Earth's diameter, about 12,742 km (7,918 mi), in seven minutes, and the distance to the Moon, 384,000 km (239,000 mi), in about 3.5 hours. Viewed from the celestial north pole, the motion of Earth, the Moon, and their axial rotations are all counterclockwise. , The Moon may have dramatically affected the development of life by moderating the planet's climate. This causes secular variation of the main field and field reversals at irregular intervals averaging a few times every million years. ", "Electricity generation – what are the options? Over the period of hundreds of millions of years, tectonic forces have caused areas of continental crust to group together to form supercontinents that have subsequently broken apart. Our home planet Earth is the fifth largest of the eight planets and measures in at 12,756 km in diameter. , The continental crust consists of lower density material such as the igneous rocks granite and andesite. , The pedosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's continental surface and is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. (.DAT file (displays as plaintext in browser)), International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, "Geoid, Topography and Distribution of Landforms", "General Definitions and Numerical Standards", "Surface area of our planet covered by oceans and continents. , Earth's rotation period relative to the Sun—its mean solar day—is 86,400 seconds of mean solar time (86,400.0025 SI seconds). Its volume is 1.08321 × 1012 km. Earth's density is 5.513 grams per cubic centimeter, according to NASA. 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Has cognates in every Germanic language, and gradually slows its rotation, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street 15th. Culturally transformative shifts in the upper atmosphere [ 193 ] water vapor, carbon dioxide,,.