The urban parts of the Varanasi district had an infant mortality rate of 70 per 1,000 live births in 2010–2011. Excavations in 2014 led to the discovery of artefacts dating back to 800 BCE. [41] On the last day, the festivities reach a crescendo as Rama vanquishes the demon king Ravana. [41], Nag Nathaiya is celebrated on the fourth lunar day of the dark fortnight of the Hindu month of Kartik (October–November). In 1656, Emperor Aurangzeb ordered the destruction of many temples and the building of mosques, causing the city to experience a temporary setback. [93] It is home to a number of colleges and universities. [82], Because of the high population density of Varanasi and the increasing number of tourists, the Uttar Pradesh government and international non-governmental organisations and institutions have expressed grave concern for the pollution and pressures on infrastructure in the city, mainly the sewage, sanitation, and drainage components. The city has several banks, including the Allahabad Bank, Andhra Bank, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Central Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, and State Bank of India. Hindus believe that dying here and getting cremated along the banks of the "holy" Ganges river allows one to break the cycle of rebirth and attain salvation,[13] making it a major center for pilgrimage. [103] Important agricultural products include betel leaves (for paan), langra mangoes and khoa (solidified milk). [239] Varanasi Traffic Police keeps an eye through Smart Command and Control Centre. Varanasi grew as an important industrial centre famous for its muslin and silk fabrics, perfumes, ivory works, and sculpture. [35] In 1665, the French traveller Jean-Baptiste Tavernier described the architectural beauty of the Vindu Madhava temple on the side of the Ganges. [76], Varanasi is represented in the Lok Sabha by the current Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi who won the Lok Sabha elections in 2014 by a huge margin. [246] In fiscal year 2014–18, the city was awarded with projects worth Rs 30,000 crore. [43][164], The primary Muslim festivals celebrated annually in the city are the ld-ul-fitr' (Ramzan), Bakrid, Mid-Sha'ban, Bara Wafat and Muharram. Among them Kendriya Vidyalaya BHU holds the regional office of Varanasi Region of KVS and is seat of Deputy Commissioner. SP) (City, Rural Area, Crime, Traffic, Protocol and Protocol), who are either IPS officers or PPS officers. [102][108], Tourism is Varanasi's second most important industry. [210] Also, BHU caters sports complexes including badminton court, tennis court, swimming pool and amphitheater. In the metal manufacturing sector, Banaras Locomotive Works is a major employer. Much of modern Varanasi was built during this time, especially during the 18th century by the Maratha and Bhumihar Brahmin Kings. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects.These estimates represent the Urban agglomeration of Chennai, which typically includes … S.No. [144] The mosque has high domes and minarets. The total geographical area of village is 285.62 hectares. [43] A group of priests performs "Agni Pooja" (Sanskrit: "Worship of Fire") daily in the evening at this ghat as a dedication to Shiva, Ganga, Surya (Sun), Agni (Fire), and the entire universe. Many books illustrated in the Mughal miniature style are also part of the collections. The fort is a typical example of the Mughal architecture with carved balconies, open courtyards, and scenic pavilions. As per 2009 stats, Rampur village is also a gram panchayat. Hence, agglomerating Buddhist population in the region. In 2019 2020, the population of the city of Varanasi, India is - 1 091 918 people. [219], Over 3,010,702 passengers passed through the airport in 2019–20, making it the 20th busiest airport in India. [165][166] Since 1923, the temple has organised a five-day classical music and dance concert festival named Sankat Mochan Sangeet Samaroh, wherein iconic artists from all parts of India are invited to perform. Salarpur is a census town in Varanasi tehsil of Varanasi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. [176] [156][157] The cantonment graveyard of the British Raj is now the location of Varanasi's Arts and Crafts. The fort and its museum are the repository of the history of the kings of Benares. Power supply is by the Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited. During the monarchic rule of Govind Chandra in the 16th century, the Dhrupad style of singing received royal patronage and led to other related forms of music such as Dhamar, Hori, and Chaturang. [119][120], The Ghats in Varanasi are world-renowned embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Mughalsarai Junction railway station is also the important station in Varanasi suburban. Among the estimated 23,000 temples in Varanasi are Kashi Vishwanath Temple of Shiva, the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple, and the Durga Temple. [71], The district police is headed by a Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by six Superintendents of Police (SP)/Additional Superintendents of Police (Addl. [45] The city is the headquarters of Varanasi district. [217][circular reference][218] Air India, Air India Express, Buddha Air, IndiGo, Malindo Air, SpiceJet, SriLankan Airlines, Thai AirAsia, Thai Smile and Vistara operate flights from Varanasi to Ahmedabad, Bangkok, Colombo, Delhi, Gaya, Kathmandu, Khajuraho, Sharjah, Kuala Lumpur, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Goa, Guwahati, Jaipur, Kolkata and several other cities. Most notably, it is the site of Banaras Hindu University (BHU), which is one of the largest residential universities in Asia with over 20,000 students. The total estimated completion cost for construction of Varanasi Metro is estimated to be Rs. Ahilya Ghat, Chet Singh Ghat, Kedar Ghat, Ganga Aarti at, Early Modern to Modern periods (1500–1949), sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSingh2009 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBettsMcCulloch2013 (, Lal Bahadur Shastri International Airport, The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma, Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi, Institute of Integrated Management and Technology, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, National Seed Research and Training Centre, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, Uttar Pradesh Board of Technical Education, "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above", "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA", "Yogi Adityanath is right. [152], Renowned Indian writers who have resided in the city were Kabir, Ravidas, and Tulsidas, who wrote much of his Ram Charit Manas here. The smart traffic management system equips the city with automatic signal control system, separate signal system for pedestrians, traffic management center at state level, area traffic control system, corridor management and dynamic traffic indicators for smooth movement of traffic. Hindu religious texts use many epithets to refer to Varanasi, such as Kāśikā (काशिका: Sanskrit: "the shining one"), Avimukta (अविमुक्त: Sanskrit: "never forsaken" by Shiva), Ānandakanana (आनंदकानन: Sanskrit: "the forest of bliss"), and Rudravāsa (रुद्रवास: Sanskrit: "the place where Rudra/Śiva resides"). km, #5 in the number of bus/ railway stations and #13 in households with electricity connections. [22], The Dashashwamedh Ghat is the main and probably the oldest ghat of Varanasi located on the Ganges, close to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. [151], Sarnath is located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. Indira Gandhi. One of the major factors in Varanasi, is its access to all parts of the country. It is believed that the Jain Maharajas used to own these ghats. Varanasi. The Kashi Naresh (Maharaja of Kashi) is the chief cultural patron of Varanasi, and an essential part of all religious celebrations. An 1895 photograph of the Varanasi riverfront. [41] Kashi Naresh Udit Narayan Singh started this tradition around 1830. Varanasi (Hindustani pronunciation: [ʋaːˈraːɳəsi] (listen)), also known as Benares,[10] Banaras (Banāras [bəˈnaːrəs] (listen)), or Kashi (Kāśī [ˈkaːʃi] (listen)), is a city on the banks of the river Ganges in Uttar Pradesh, India, 320 kilometres (200 mi) south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and 121 kilometres (75 mi) east of Allahabad. Because of huge rush at Varanasi Junction the railway developed the station as a high facilitated terminal.Varanasi City railway station is also one of the railway stations in Varanasi district. [92], According to provisional data from the 2011 census, the Varanasi urban agglomeration had a population of 1,435,113, with 761,060 men and 674,053 women. [154] The main newspaper is Aj, a Hindi-language nationalist newspaper first published in 1920. Varanasi is therefore considered an extremely holy site.[18]. [271] The project is envisaged to be undertaken as a joint venture (JV) project between the Government of India (GoI) and the Government of Uttar Pradesh (GoUP) with 50:50 equity partnerships. Bhagawanpur is a census town in Varanasi tehsil of Varanasi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Since 1922, ayurveda has been a subject of training in the Banaras Hindu University, and in 1927 a separate Ayurvedic College was established. The distance between the two confluences is around 2 miles (4 km), and serves as a sacred journeying route for Hindus, which culminates with a visit to a Sakshi Vinayak Temple. The district has three tehsils, each headed by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate. Additional festivals include Alvida and Chehlum. [223] Manduadih railway station is also a Terminal station of Varanasi. [89], Varanasi's water supply and sewage system is maintained by Jal Nigam, a subsidiary of Varanasi Nagar Nigam. [95] Approximately 138,000 people in the municipal area live in slums. Above and adjacent to this ghat, there are also temples dedicated to Sulatankesvara, Brahmesvara, Varahesvara, Abhaya Vinayaka, Ganga (the Ganges), and Bandi Devi, which are all important pilgrimage sites. [11] Guru Nanak visited Varanasi for Maha Shivaratri in 1507, a trip that played a large role in the founding of Sikhism. [140] The mosque is administered by the Anjuman Inthazamiya Masajid (AIM). [41] The plays, sponsored by Kashi Naresh, are performed in Ramnagar every evening for 31 days. [149], Shri Guru Ravidass Janam Asthan, at Sir Gobardhan is the ultimate place of pilgrimage or religious headquarters for followers of the Ravidassia religion. [83] Pollution of the Ganges is a particular source of worry because of the religious significance of the river, the dependence of people on it as a source of drinking water, and its prominence as a symbol of Varanasi and the city itself. The city has long been an educational and musical centre: many prominent Indian philosophers, poets, writers, and musicians live or have lived in the city, and it was the place where the Benares gharana form of Hindustani classical music was developed. [citation needed], Several newspapers and journals are or were published in Varanasi such as Varanasi Chandroday and its successor Kashivartaprakashika, which became a weekly journal, first published on 1 June 1851. [22][25] When Xuanzang, visited Varanasi in the 7th century, he named it "Polonise" (婆羅痆斯) and wrote that the city had some 30 temples with about 30 monks. At present, the fort is in disrepair. Other KVs are Kendriya Vidyalaya 39 GTC and Kendriya Vidyalaya DLW. [35] In 1791, under the rule of the British Governor-General Warren Hastings, Jonathan Duncan founded a Sanskrit College in Varanasi. [91] The solid wastes are disposed in one landfill site. [43], The Ramlila of Ramnagar is a dramatic enactment of Rama's legend, as told in Ramacharitamanasa. He stands over the effigy in a dancing pose playing the flute, while an audience watches from the banks of the river or from boats. To maintain the financial viability of the project, additional grants have been proposed from the two governments in addition to their equity contribution. Silk weaving is the dominant industry in Varanasi. [125], Many of the ghats were constructed under the patronage of the Marathas, Shindes (Scindias), Holkars, Bhonsles, and Peshwas. In 2011 there were total 92593 families residing in Pindra Tehsil. By road, Varanasi is located 797 kilometres (495 mi) south-east of New Delhi, 320 kilometres (200 mi) south-east of Lucknow, 121 kilometres (75 mi) east of Allahabad, and 63 kilometres (39 mi) south of Jaunpur. The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara established the worship of Shiva as an official sect of Varanasi. Besant founded the college because she wanted "to bring men of all religions together under the ideal of brotherhood in order to promote Indian cultural values and to remove ill-will among different sections of the Indian population. In the Rigveda, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, the city is referred to as Kāśī (काशी: Kashi) from the Sanskrit verbal root kaś- "to shine", making Varanasi known as "City of Light",[15] the "luminous city as an eminent seat of learning". Numerous eminent scholars and preachers visited the city from across India and South Asia. [99], According to the 2006 City Development Plan for Varanasi, approximately 29% of Varanasi's population is employed. [204][205][206], Basketball, cricket, and field hockey are popular sports in Varanasi. Heading Details 1 Location Longitude 83.0 Latitude: 25.20 2 Geographical Area (2001) 1535 per.sq.km 3 Population (2011) 3,676,841 3-1 Male (2011) 1,921,857 3-2 Female (2011) 1,754,984 3-3 Rural (2011) 2,079,790 3-4 Urban (2011) 1,597,051 3-5 Scheduled Caste 486,958 3-6 Scheduled Tribes 28617 3-7 Sex Ratio 913 3-8 Population Density 2395 per.sq.km 4 Literacy 75.60% […] [155], Varanasi is a major centre of arts and designs. Varanasi Lok Sabha constituency (Hindi: वाराणसी लोकसभा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र) is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Uttar Pradesh, a state in northern India.The city, one of the most ancient and holy places in Hinduism, is also known by the names Banaras and Kashi. [167] Bharat Milap celebrates the meeting of Rama and his younger brother Bharata after the return of the former after 14 years of exile. [147][145] Two of its minarets had been damaged; one minaret crashed killing a few people and the other minaret was officially brought down because of stability concerns. A non-religious festival observed by Muslims is Ghazi-miyan-ka-byaha ("the marriage of Ghazi Miyan").[169][170]. [153] Later writers of the city have included Acharya Shukla, Baldev Upadhyaya, Bharatendu Harishchandra, Devaki Nandan Khatri, Premchand, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Jaishankar Prasad, Kshetresa Chandra Chattopadhyaya, Sudama Pandey (Dhoomil), Vagish Shastri, and Vidya Niwas Mishra. [243] Nearly, 170 crore was invested by the Government to setup an inland port. Some important express trains operating from the Varanasi Junction railway station and Manduadih railway station are: Shiv Ganga Express runs between New Delhi Junction and Manduadih station while Mahamana Express runs between Varanasi junction and New Delhi Junction; the Udhna Varanasi Express that runs between Udhna (Surat) junction and Varanasi, a distance of 1,398 kilometres (869 mi);[224] the Kashi Vishwanath Express that runs between Varanasi and New Delhi railway station;[225] the Kanpur Varanasi InterCity express, also called Varuna express, which runs over a distance of 355 kilometres (221 mi) and connects with Lucknow (the capital city of Uttar Pradesh) and Varanasi;[226] and the Sabarmati Express which runs between Varanasi and Ahmedabad. The religious head, Kashi Naresh, has had his headquarters at the Ramnagar Fort since the 18th century, also a repository of the history of the kings of Varanasi, which is situated to the east of Varanasi, across the Ganges. Within the city mobility is provided by taxis, rickshaws, cycle rickshaws, and three-wheelers, but with certain restrictions in the old town area of the city. The total population of Varanasi is 1198491 out of which 635140 are males and 563351 are females. The Kashi Vishwanath Temple, the most important temple in Varanasi. In the 18th century, Muhammad Shah ordered the construction of an observatory on the Ganges, attached to Man Mandir Ghat, designed to discover imperfections in the calendar in order to revise existing astronomical tables. [208] The city also caters an AstroTurf hockey stadium named, Dr. Bheemrao Ambedker National Hockey Stadium. Population, Religion, Caste, Literacy, Sex ratio data of Varanasi District as per Census 2011 [119] In addition, manuscripts, especially religious writings, are housed in the Saraswati Bhawan which is a part of a museum within the fort. Route to UP's $1 trillion GDP goal passes through hinterland", http://ssca.org.in/media/4_2016_HDI_t1hcMZm.pdf, The name that appears on the 1909 version official map of India, "When the spirit of Kabir took over the ancient ghats of Benares", "Kashi's Mehta Hospital likely to get facelift | Varanasi News - Times of India", "Banaras (Inde): new archaeological excavations are going on to determine the age of Varanasi", "Varanasi as Heritage City (India) on the scale the UNESCO World Heritage List: From Contestation to Conservation", "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)", "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India", "Role and Functions of Divisional Commissioner", "Contact Details Of Commissioners and District Magistrates Of U.P. On this occasion, a large Kadamba tree (Neolamarckia cadamba) branch is planted on the banks of the Ganges so that a boy, playing the role of Krishna, can jump into the river on to the effigy representing Kaliya. Out of which 1921857 are males while 1754984 are females. Bhima, a son of Pandu, married a Kashi princess Valandhara and their union resulted in the birth of Sarvaga, who later ruled Kashi. [152], The city is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of pilgrimage to which his devout followers should visit. Some research oriented institutes were also established by the government such as International Rice Research Institute (IRRI),[174] Indian Institute of Vegetable Research[175] and National Seed Research and Training Centre. The slum population accounts for 25.2% of the total population of Varanasi city. by pankaj singh July 25, 2020 July 26, 2020 1 India has population of approx 1.36 billion or 136 crore ,which is second largest population country in the world.Now,let’s analyse the population state by state.so,that … [181] The temple town has emerged as a hub to Hindi film industry and South film industry. By mid of year 2020 the population is projected to be 237,882,725, as per Aadhar India Unique Identification, updated on 31, May 2020. Varanasi is a Munciple Corporation city situated in Varanasi Tehsil of Varanasi district. It is 4 km North-East of Varanasi Junction railway station. Notable artists (musicians and dancers) and historians who are connected with the city include Thakur Jaidev Singh, Mahadev Prasad Mishra, Bismillah Khan, Ravi Shankar, Girija Devi, Gopal Shankar Misra, Gopi Krishna, Kishan Maharaj, Lalmani Misra, Premlata Sharma, N. Rajam, Siddheshwari Devi, Samta Prasad, Sitara Devi,[159] Chhannulal Mishra, Rajan Sajan Mishra, Ritwik Sanyal, Soma Ghosh, Devashish Dey, Ramkrishna Das and Harish Tiwari. During the Muslim rule through the Middle Ages, the city continued as an important centre of Hindu devotion, pilgrimage, mysticism and poetry which further contributed to its reputation as a centre of cultural importance and religious education. According to ancient legend, Shiva is credited with evolving music and dance forms. Varanasi Junction, commonly known as Varanasi Cantt Railway Station, is the city's largest train station. Because of its scenic location on the banks of the Ganges, it is frequently used as an outdoor shooting location for films. [180] Some government schools lack basic equipment, such as blackboards and sufficient desks and chairs for all students. Presently the Dhrupad maestro Pandit Ritwik Sanyal from Varanasi is working for the revival of this art-music. 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